Tabriz is the fourth largest city and one of the historical capitals of Iran and the capital of East Azerbaijan Province. Situated at an altitude of 1,350 meters at the junction of the Quru River and Aji River, it was the second largest city in Iran until the late 1960s, one of its former capitals, and residence of the crown prince under the Qajar dynasty. The city has proven extremely influential in the country’s recent history. Tabriz is located in a valley to the north of the long ridge of the volcanic cone of Sahand, south of the Eynali Mountain. The valley opens out into a plain that slopes gently down to the northern end of Lake Urmia, 60 kilometers (37 miles) to the west. With cold winters and temperate summers the city is considered a summer resort.
Tabriz has a semi-arid climate with regular seasons. The annual precipitation is around 380 millimeters (15 in), a good deal of which falls as snow during the winter months and rain in spring and autumn. The city enjoys mild and fine climate in spring, dry and semi-hot in summer, humid and rainy in autumn and snowy cold in winter. The average annual temperature is 12 °C. Cool winds blow from east to west mostly in summer.